Jammu And Kashmir Literature and Poetry

Literature and Poetry
Kashmiri Literature has a history of at least 2,500 years, dating back to the glory days of Sanskrit. The use of the Kashmiri language began with the poet Lalleshvari or Lal Ded (14th century), who wrote mystical verses. Another mystic of her time equally revered in Kashmir and popularly known as Nunda Reshi wrote powerful poetry like his senior Lal Ded. Later, came Habba Khatun (16th century) with her own style. Other major names are Rupa Bhavani (1621-1721), Arnimal (d. 1800), Mahmud Gami (1765-1855), Rasul Mir (d. 1870), Paramananda (1791-1864 ), Maqbool Shah Kralawari (1820-1976). Also the Sufi poets like Shamas Fakir, Wahab Khar, Soch Kral, Samad Mir, and Ahad Zargar.

Among modern poets are Ghulam Ahmad Mahjur (1885-1952), Abdul Ahad Azad (1903-1948), and Zinda Kaul (1884-1965).

During 1950s, a number of well educated youth turned to Kashmiri writing, both poetry and prose, and enriched modern Kashmiri writing by leaps and bounds. Among these writers are Dinanath Nadim (1916-1988), Rahman Rahi, Muzaffar Aazim, Ghulam Nabi Firaq, Amin Kamil (1923-) , Ali Mohd Lone, Akhtar Mohiuddin and Sarvanand Kaul 'Premi'. Some later day writers are Hari Krishan Kaul, Majrooh Rashid,Rattanlal Shant, Hirdhey Kaul Bharti, Nazir Jahangir, Moti Lal Kemmu etc.

Traditional events are still popular and as in the other parts of Kashmir, poetry is highly appreciated. The art of storytelling, both entertaining and educational, considered a way for the transmission of moral teachings, is valued and a rich oral literature is still alive today.

The main language of Kashmir is Kashmiri. It is said that it is a mixed language and the greater part of its vocabulary is of Indian origin and it is allied to that of Sanskritic-Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India.

Kashmiri poetry begins with the works of great mystic poetess Lalleshwari of 14th century. These sayings are the gems of Kashmiri poetry and true knowledge of yoga. These are deep and sublime. She held a key to many mystic truths. The following stanza illustrates her deep mystic thought:
"So my lamp of knowledge afar, Fanned by slow breath from the throat of me.
They, my bright soul to my self revealed. Winnowed I abroad my inner light. And with darkness around me sealed, Did I garner truth and hold Him tight."
(Translated by Sir Richard Temple)

Lal Ded thinks dissolution of 'self' (Aham) essential for Realization. According to her, Sadhaka has to reach that mental attitude where there is no difference between 'Him' and 'self'. She says one who considers his own self and others alike ends the distinction between 'I' and 'you', who treats days and nights alike, who is above sorrows and pleasures, can only realize God in his own self. According to her, differentiation between the human soul and Divine-self was Zero. Lal Ded is the first woman mystic to preach medieval mysticism in Kashmiri poetry. She used metaphors, riddles and other mediums for her expression.

Like Lal Ded, another mystic poet of Kashmiri language is Nunda Rishi, who is known as Sheikh Nur-ud-Din. Nunda Rishi favoured good action which is the secret of happiness in the world. He preached a disciplined life like this:
Desire is like the knotted wood of the forest
It cannot be made into planks, beams or into cradles;
He who cut and telled it,
Will burn it into ashes.

He considered rosary as a snake and favoured true worship:
Do not go to Sheikh and Priest and Mullah;
Do not feed the cattle or Arkh or leaves;
Do not shut thyself up in mosques or forests;
Enter thine own body with breath controlled in communion with God.