List of People regarded as Father of a Scientific Field

List of People regarded as Father of a Scientific Field

Father of Biology : Aristole
Father of Modern Biology: Linnaeus
Father of Antibiotics : Alexander Fleming
Father of Taxonomy : Carolus Linnaeus
Father of  Immunology : Edward Jenner
Father of Microbiology : Anton van Leenuwenhoek
Father of Modern Microbiology : Louis Pasteur
Father of Medical Microbiology : Robert Koch
Father of Pathology : Rudolph Virchow
Father of Bacteriology : Robert Koch
Father of Virology : W.M.Stanley
Father of Embryology : Aristotle
Father of Modern Embryology : Ernst Von Baer
Father of Physiology : Stephan Hales
Father of Modern experimental physiology : Calude Bernard
Father of Genetics : Rev. Gregor Mendel
Father of Modern  Genetics : Bateson
Father of Human Genetics/ Biochemical genetics : Arachibald Garrod
Father of Experimental Genetics : T.H. Morgan
Father of Haploid Genetics / Neurospora Genetics : Dodge
Father of  Ecology : Theophrastus
Father of  Cloning : Ian Willmut
Father of Plant anatomy : Grew
Father of Histology (Microscopic anatomy) : Malpighi
Father of Cytology : Robert Hooke
Father of modern Cytology : Swanson
Father of  Paleontology : Leonard da Vinci
Father of modern Paleontology : Cuvier
Father of  Concept of Evolution: Empedocles
Father of Botany: Theophrastus
Father of Modern Botany : Bauhin
Father of Zoology : Aristotle
Father of  Biochemistry : Liebig
Father of Epidemiology : John Snow
Father of Plant Pathology : de Bary
Father of Modern  Pathology : Rudolf Virchow
Father of Genetic Engineering : Paul Berg
Father of Gene therapy : Anderson
Father of Ethology : Konard Lorentz
Father of Endocrinology : Thomas  Addison
Father of Eugenics : Galton
Father of Gerantology : Korenchevsk
Father of Palynology : Erdtman
Father of Stress physiology : Hans Selye
Father of Electrocardiography : Einthoven
Father of DNA Fingerprinting : Alec Jeffery
Father of Mycology : Micheli
Father of Bryology : Hedwig
Father of Phycology:
Father of ATP cycle: Lipmann
Father of Chemotherapy :
Father of Anatomy : Herophilus
Father of Modern Anatomy : Andreas Vesalius
Father of actinobiology / radiation biology : HJVS Muller
Father of Homeopathy : Hahnemann
Father of Ayurveda : Charka
Father of Surgery and Plastic Surgery : Susruta
Father of Blood circulation : William Harvey
Father of Medicine : Hippocrates
Father of Blood Group : Landsteiner
Father of Polio Vaccine : Jonas Salk
Father of Green Revolution: Norman Borlaug

Top Most Expected Questions from J&K General Knowledge Section

Top Most Expected Questions from J&K General Knowledge Section

(I) Expected Questions on Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K)
1) When was J&K Constituent Assembly was constituted ?
Ans: Sept, 1951
2) The constitution of J&K was adopted on ?
Ans: 17th Nov, 1956
3) When did constitution of J&K comes into force ?
Ans 26th Jan, 1957
4) Chairman of Drafting Committee of J&K Constituent Assembly ?
Ans Sh. Girdhari Lal Dogra
5) When did J&K Acceded with India ?
Ans 26th Oct, 1947
6) How many Parts are there in the constitution of J&K ?
Ans Part-XIIIth (13th)

7) Which Section of J&K constitution deals with Fundamental Rights ?
Ans Section-10
8) Which Part of J&K's constitution describes its Relationship with India ?
Ans Part-II
9) Which Section Deals with Right to compulsory and Free Education
Ans Section-20
10) Which Section Deals for Rights of Women and Children
Ans Section 21 - Rights of Children
Section-22- Rights of Women
11) Which Part of Constitution deals with "Directive Principles of state Policy" ?
Ans Part-IV
12) Which Part of Constitution deals with "Permanent Residents" ?
Ans Part-III
13 ) How many sections are there in Part -IV (Directive Principles) of Constitution ?
Ans Section (11- 25) are covered in Part-IV
(II ) Expected Questions on J&K RTI Act
14) When was the RTI Act was first enacted in J&K ?
Ans 7th Jan, 2004
15) When the J&K RTI Act-2009 comes into force ?
Ans 20th March, 2009
16) Who was First state Chief Information Commissioner ?
Ans G R Sufi
17) Under which sections of J&K RTI Act, 2009, Information cannot be disclosed ?
Ans Any information falls under the exemptions of Section-8 & 9
18) What is the Time Limit to get Information from PIO ?
Ans 30 Days
19) How many chapters are there are J&K RTI Act 2009 ?
Ans 5 Chapters
Chapter-1 : Preliminary (Section 1 & 2)Chapter-2: Right to Information and Obligation of Public Authority (Section 3 to Section-11)Chapter-3: The state Information Commission (Section 12,13 & 14)Chapter-4 Power and Function of Information Commission, Appeal and Penalties (Section 15 to Section 17)Chapter-5: Miscellaneous (Section 18 to 28)
20) What are some of the Important Sections of RTI Act, 2009
Section-3 : Deals with Right to InformationSection-4: Obligation of Public authoritiesSection-8: Exemption from Disclose of InformationSection-9: Ground for rejectionSection-12: constitution of State Information CommissionSection-20 : Jurisdiction of CourtsSection-23: Role of Govt.Section-24: Power of Govt to make Rules
21) Who can appoint the State Information Commissioner ?
Ans Governor.
22) What does Third Party Mean ?
Ans It means person other than citizen
23 ) What does the First Appellate authority mean ?
Ans If you didn't get information with in 30 days, Or you are not satisfied with the information given, then you can appeal to the Next higher level. This higher level in called Ist appellate authority
24) What is Fee for Filing the RTI Application ?
Ans Rs 10
(III) Expected Questions on Rivers and Lakes of J&K
25) The ancient name of River Chenab is ?
Ans Chandrabhagha
26) Which lake is known as Vishnupad ?
Ans Kausar Nag (Kulgam)
27) Mansabal Lake is Famous for ?
Ans Lotus
28) From where the Chenab Originates ?
Ans Baralacha (A snow bed)
29) Where is Gangabal Lake Located
Ans Foothills of Mount Harmukh (In Ganderbal)
30) Which is the largest fresh water lake ?
Ans Wular lake
31) Origin and Popular Local Name of Jhelum
Ans Origin: Verinag
Popular Name: Vitasta
32) Which Lake is known as Harmukh Ganga ?
Ans Gangabal Lake
33) Which is Largest salt water lake in India
Ans Pangong Lake (Ladakh)
34) What is Origion of Tawi River ?
Ans Kailash Kund ( Sewajdhar New Bhadarwah)
35) What is another name for Ravi River ?
Ans Iravati
36) Which Lake is located en route to Amarnath cave ?
Ans Sheshnag Lake
37) From where Kishengnaga River Originates
Ans Drea Mountains
38) What is other name of Mansar Lake in Jammu Division?
Ans Mansarovar Lake
39) Which Lake is Located near by famous Tourist spot Patnitop
Ans Sanasar
40) From where the Indus Originates
Ans Glaciers in Mansoravor (Tibet)
(IV) Expected Questions on Indus Water Treaty
41) Indus Water Treaty was Signed between
Ans India and Pakistan
42) when the Indus Water treaty was signed ?
Ans 19th Sept, 1960 (Singed in Karachi)
43) Which International Organization act as a mediator in passing the treaty?
Ans World Bank.
44) Which Rivers are involved in Indus Water treaty ?
Ans Western Rivers: Indus, Jhelum and chenab
Eastern Rivers: Ravi , Sutlej and Beas
45) The Idea for Indus Water treaty was given by ?
Ans Mr Lilienthal
46) who was the president of World Bank at the time of signing the treaty ?
Ans E. R Black.
47) What is the Duration of Transition period given by India to Pakistan for receiving the water from eastern rivers
Ans 10 years
48) The construction on which Navigation Project was stopped , after the objections were raised by Pakistan
Ans Tulbul Navigational Project
49) Which committe was set up after signing of Indus water treaty?
Ans Indus Commission
50) Who were the signers of this treaty ?
Ans Mr Jawahar Lal Nehru and General Ayub Khan
(V) Important Power Projects of J&K
51) Which is the First Hydro Electric Project of J&K
Ans Mohra Hydro Electric Project (Estd. 1905)
52) Which is currently the biggest Power Generation Project of J&K ?
Ans Salal Hydro Electric Project
53) What is the Installed capacity of Baghlihar-I ?
Ans 450 MW
54 ) Uri Dam is built on which river ?
Ans Jhelum
55 ) Name the Power Projects Operational on Chenab River ?
Ans) Salal, Baghlihar and Dul Hasti (390 MW)
56 ) What is the Installed capacity of Salal Hyodro electric Project?
Ans 690 MW
57 ) Where is Nimo Bazgo Power Project Installed ?
Ans Indus (In Leh)
58) What is the Installed Capcity of URI-I and URI-II ?
Ans URI-I: 480 MW
URI-II: 240 MW
59) Where is Kishanganaga Power Project Located ?
Ans Bandipora (Capacity: 330 MW)
60) Where is Pakal Dul Dam Projected ?
Ans Chenab (Kishtwar) Capacity : 1000 MW
(VI) Historical and Tourist Places of J&K
61) The contruction of Famous Raghnath Mandir was started by ?
Ans Maharaja Gulab Singh
62) Bahu Fort was constructed by ?
Ans Raja Bahu Lochan.
63) Shadra-Sharief , of Rajouri is Famous for ?
Ans Shrine of Baba Ghulam Shah
64) What famous temple is known as Takht-e-Suleman ?
Ans Shankrcharya Temple
65 Shalimar bagh was built by ?
Ans Jehangir for his wife Nur Jahan in 1619
66) The Hill of Hari Parbhat is famous for ?
Ans Sharika Mata shrine
67) Nishat Bahg was built by ?
Ans Asif Khan (Brother of Nur Jahan)
68) Hazartbal shrine is famous for ?
Ans Moi-e-Muqqadas
69) Where is Martand Sun Temple Located
Ans Anantnag
70) Who constructed Shankrachaya Temple ?
Ans Raja Gopaditya
71) The First fortification for Hari Parbhat was constructed during the reign of ?
Ans Akbar
72) Which place is J&K is known as "Meadow of Gold" ?
Ans Sonamarg
73) Chashma-Sahi was constructed by ?
Ans Shah Jahan to gift his son "Dara Shikhon"
74) Which district is known as "Land of Springs"
Ans Budgam Anantnag
75) The famous Jama Masjid at Srinagar was built by ?
Ans Sultan Sikander

Jkssb International Questions

United Nations Organisation
 *The name UNO was suggested by
 Ans : F. D. Roosevelt
 *UNO was formally came into existence on
 Ans : October 24,1945
 *UN day is observed on
 Ans : October 24
 *Headquarters of UNO
 Ans : Manhattan (New York)
 *The main aim of UNO
 Ans : Peace and Human dignity
 *Motto of UNO
 Ans : It's Your World
 *UN Flag was adopted on
 Ans : October 20, 1947
 *Colour of UN Flag
 Ans : Light Blue 
*Design of UN Flag
 Ans : World map surrounded by two olive branches 
*UN Emblem was designed by 
Ans : Donal McLaughlin
 *The Secretary General of the UN is elected by the General assembly on recommendation of the
 Ans : Security Council
 *The only body in which all UN members are represented
 Ans: General Assembly
 *First General meeting of UNO was held in 
Ans : London(1946)
 *The largest subsidiary body of UNO 
Ans : Economic and Social Council
 *The Constitution of the United Nations Organisation
 Ans : UN Charter 
*The Preamble of the UN was prepared by 
Ans : Field Marshal Smuts
 *UN Charter was signed on 
Ans : June 26,1945 
*The meeting in which the UN Charter was signed
 Ans : San Francisco
 *UN Charter came into force on 
Ans : October 24,1945 
*The number of countries signed in the UN Charter in its first phase 
Ans : 50
 *India signed in the UN Charter on 
Ans : October 30,1945 
*The Indian representative to sign in the UN Charter
 Ans : Ramaswamy Muthaliyar 
*51st country to sign in UN Charter 
Ans : Poland
 *The executive body of the United Nations 
Ans : Security Council
 *The five permanent members of UNO
 Ans : China, France, Russia, Britain and USA
 *Human Rights Declaration made by UNO on 
Ans : December 10,1948 
*Human Rights Day is observed on 
Ans : December 10
 *Number of official languages of UNO 
Ans : 6
 *Official Languages of UNO
 Ans : English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish Working Languages of UNO English and French
 *The 6th Language Arabic was preferred as the Official Language of UN in
 Ans : 1973
 *UN Celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 
Ans : 1995
 *European headquarters of UN 
Ans : Geneva
 *Asian and European countries which are not the members of UN
 Ans : Taiwan and Vatican respectively
 *Number of representatives on the commencement of UNO
 Ans : 51
 *The Secretary General of UN is elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of
 Ans : Security Council
 *First Secretary General of UNO
 Ans : Trygve Lie
 *The present and 9th Secretary General of UN
 Ans : Antonio Guterres
 *Antonio Guterres belongs to
 Ans : Portugal
 *The UN Library is known as
 Ans : Hammarskjold Library
 *First person who received Nobel prize posthumously in 1961
 Ans : Dag Hammarskjold
 *The organisation of UN dedicated exclusively to children
 Ans : UNICEF
 *Total membership of UNO at present 
Ans : 193
 *190th member of UNO 
Ans : .Switzerland
 *191st member of UNO
 Ans : East Timor
 *192nd member of UNO 
Ans : Montenegro
 *193rd member of UNO
 Ans : South Sweden
 *The smallest UN member in terms of population
 Ans : Nauru
 *The smallest UN member in terms of area
 Ans : Monaco
 *The UN Library is located in
 Ans : Newyork
 *The UN University Is located in
 Ans : Tokyo
 *The UN Peace University is located in
 Ans : Costa Rica
 *UN Women was formed on
 Ans : July 2,2010
 *UN Women became operational in 
Ans : January 2011 
*Headquarters of UN Women 
Ans : New York
 *First Indian to become the President of UN General Assembly
 Ans : Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (1953)
 *The General Assembly meeting is described as
 Ans : 'Town meeting of the world'
 *The United Nations Inter regional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) is located at
 Ans : Turin (Italy)
 *The Trusteeship Council was suspended in operation on
 Ans : November 1,1994 (with the independence of Palau)

 UN ORGANS
 *Sixth Organ of UNO
 Ans : The Trusteeship Council
 THE MAIN ORGANS OF UNO ARE
 *The General Assembly
 Ans : New York
 *The Security Council
 Ans : New York
 *The Economic and Social Council
 Ans : New York
 *International Court of Justice
 Ans : Hague
 *The Secretariat
 Ans : New York

 THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
 *Only body of UN in which every member of the organization is represented and allowed to vote
 Ans : General Assembly 
*The role General Assembly
 Ans : To discuss issues and make recommendations
 *The majority required for implementing a decision in UN General Assembly
 Ans : Two third
 *The organ of UN known as World Parliament
 Ans : General Assembly 
* The UN General Assembly is presided over by 
Ans : Secretary General
 *First President of UN General Assembly
 Ans : Paul Henri Spaak
 *The term of President and Vice President of UN General Assembly
 Ans : 1 year
 *Number of major committees of UN General Assembly
 Ans : Seven
 *Number of representatives to UN General Assembly by a member country
 Ans : Five
 * Present Deputy Secretary General of UN
 Ans : Amina Mohammed(Nigeria)

 THE SECURITY COUNCIL
 *The main objective of UN Security Council
 Ans : World Peace
 *Number of member countries in UN Security Council
 Ans : Fifteen
 *Number of permanent members in UN Security Council
 Ans : 5
 *Number of temporary members in UN Security Council
 Ans : 10
 *The term of temporary members in UN Security Council
 Ans : 2
 *Permanent members in UN Security Council are otherwise known as
 Ans : P-5 Countries
 *Permanent members are
 * China 
* France 
* Russia 
* Britain 
* USA
 *The power of five Permanent Members of UN Security Council to prevent the adoption of any "substantive" resolution
 Ans : Veto Power

 THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
 *Number of member countries in the Economic and Social Council
 Ans : 54
 *The term of members of Economic and Social Council
 Ans : Three years(1/3 members retire each year)
 *Main objective of Economic and Social Council
 Ans : To implement the economic and social values
 *The operations of World Health Organization (WHO) and UNESCO were controlled by
 Ans : Economic and Social Council
 *Number of Commissions working under Economic and Social Council
 Ans : Twelve

 INTERNATIONAL COURT OF USTICE (ICJ)
 *The only organisation of UN which has the headquarters outside New York
 Ans : ICJ
 *Headquarters of IG
 Ans : Hague (Netherland)
 *The International Court of Justice is composed of
 Ans : 15 judges
 *The term of Judges in the International Court of Justice
 Ans : Nine Years
 *The clients of International court of justice
 Ans : Member Countries
 *Working languages of International Court of Justice
 Ans : English and French
 *Indians who became the judges of ICJ are
 Ans : B.N. Rao
 Justice Nagendar Singh 
Justice R.S. Pathak 
Dalveer Bhandari
 *First Indian to become the judge of ICJ
 Ans : B.N.Rao
 *ICJ was established in
 Ans : 1945

 UNO
 *First Indian to become the President of ICJ 
Ans : Justice Nagendar Singh 
*The Indian Judge who was nominated to ICJ in 2012
 Ans : Dalveer Bhandari 

SECRETARIAT
 *The main objective of the UN Secretariat 
Ans : To carry on the UN daily rules 
*The administrative centre of UN 
Ans : Secretariat
 *The principal head of the Secretariat Secretary General First Civil Servant in the World Secretary General The person known as the arbitrator of the world
 Ans : Secretary General 
*The official term of Secretary General 
Ans : Five years
 *First Deputy Secretary General
 Ans : Louise Frechette

 SECERATARY GENERALS
 *First European - Trygve Lie
 *First AsIan - Yu-tant
 *First African -Dr. Butros Gali
 *Died in Harness - Dag Hammerskjoeld
 *Resigned first - Trygve Lie
 *Got Nobel prize - Dag Hammarskjoeld (1961) Koffe Annan (2001)
 *Present - Antonio Guterres

 SPECIAL AGENCIES OF UNO INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION (ILO)
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Geneva
 *ILO was formed in 
Ans : 1919
 *Number of member countries 
Ans : 187
 *The motto of ILO
 Ans : If you desire peace,cultivate justice
 *First Special Agency of UNO 
Ans : ILO
 *ILO became the Special Agency of UNO in 
Ans : 1946
 *ILO got Nobel Prize for Peace in 
Ans : 1969

 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION (FAO)
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Rome
 *FAO was formed on
 Ans : October 16,1945 
*Number of member countries 
Ans : 194
 *Motto
 Ans : 'Let there be bread'
 *First agency of UN formed after second world war 
Ans : FAO
 *World Food day is observed on 
Ans : October 16
 *The UN member country which is not a member of the FAO
 Ans : Liechtenstein

 THE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO)
 *Formed on
 Ans : November 16,1945 
*Headquarters 
Ans : Paris
 *Number of member countries 
Ans : 195
 *Motto
 Ans : "We must construct the defenses of peace in the minds of women and men"
 *The Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation of UNO 
Ans : UNESCO
 *The International organisation which prepares World Heritage List 
Ans : UNESCO
 *The Kalinga Prize is given by 
Ans : UNESCO
 *Kalinga Prize was instituted in 
Ans : 1952
 *The Indian Chief Minister who took initiative to start Kalinga Prize 
Ans : Biju Patnaik
 *First awardee of Kalinga Prize 
Ans : Louis De Broglie 
*First Indian to receive Kalinga Prize 
Ans : Jagajith Singh
 *The Biosphere Reserve which became the part of UNESCO heritage list in 2016 
Ans : Agasthyamala
 *The temple in Kerala which won the UNESCO Excellence Award in 2015 
Ans : Vadakkumnathan Temple

 MAJOR CENTRES IN INDIA WHICH ARE INCLUDED IN THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST OF UNESCO IN 2016 
*Kanchenjunga National Park(Sikkim)
 *Capitol Complex(Chandigarh)
 *Nalanda Mahavihara(Bihar)

 WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
 *World health day
 Ans : April 7 (Formation day of WHO) 
*The publication of WHO
 Ans : World Health Report
 *The Indian woman who was the President of WHO
 Ans : Rajkumari Amrit Kaur 
*First woman Director General of WHO 
Ans : Gro Harlem Bundtland

 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA)
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Vienna
 *IAEA was formed on 
Ans : July 29,1957 
*Number of member countries 
Ans : 168
 *Motto
 Ans : 'Atom for Peace'
 *To implement the use of nuclear weapons for peace settlements is the main objective of 
Ans : IAEA
 *IAEA got the Nobel Prize for Peace in 
Ans : 2005
 *First President of IAEA 
Ans : W. Sterling Cole
 *168th Member country of IAEA 
Ans : Turkmenistan
 *The safe guard office of IAEA is located at 
Ans : Tokyo (Japan) and Toronto (Canada)

 THE UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN'S EMERGENCY FUND (UNICEF)
 *Headguarters
 Ans : New York
 *UNICEF was formed on
 Ans : December 11,1946
 *Number of member countries
 Ans : 193
 *To provide long-term humanitarian and development assistance to children and mothers in developing countries is the main objective of 
Ans : UNICEF
 *The special agency of UNICEF for the welfare of children 
Ans : UNICEF
 *UNICEF was declared 'as the permanent agency of UN in 
Ans : 1953
 *UNICEF got Nobel prize for peace in
 Ans : 1965
 * The global goodwill ambassador of UNICEF in 2016 
Ans : Priyanka Chopra
 *The goodwill ambassador of UNICEF in 2017
 Ans : Shahrukh Khan

 UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR)
 *Headquarters 
Ans : Geneva
 *UNHCR was formed on
 Ans : December 14,1950 
*Number of Member countries in UNHCR 
Ans : 120
 *To protect and support refugees is the main objective of 
Ans : UNHCR
 *UNHCR observes World Refugee day on 
Ans : June 20
 *UNHCR declared World Refugee Year during
 Ans : 1959 - 1960
 *UNHCR got Nobel prizes for Peace in 
Ans : 1954 and 1981

 WORLD BANK
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Washington DC
 *World Bank was formed on
 Ans : December 27,1945
 *Motto of World Bank
 Ans : Working for a world free of poverty
 *World's largest Bank
 Ans : World Bank
 *To provide financial assistance to poor and developed countries is the main objective of
 Ans : World Bank

 WORLD BANK CONSIST OF FIVE INSTITUTIONS
 *The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
 *The International Development Association (IDA)
 * International Financial Corporation (IFC)
 * Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
 *International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
 *It has 189 members in IBRD and 173 members in 
Ans : IDA
 *First president of World Bank
 Ans : Eugene Meyer
 *World Bank President is nominated by 
Ans : American President 
*First country to avail loan from the World bank
 Ans : France
 * The Bank which is associated with the term Third Window'
 Ans : World Bank
 * World Development Report (WDR) is published by
 Ans : World bank
 *World Development Report is published since 
Ans : 1978

 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)
 * Headquarters
 Ans : Washington DC 
*Formed on
 Ans : December 27,1945 
*Became operational on 
Ans : March 1,1947 
*Member Countries 
Ans : 189
 * IMF Director will be from the continent of 
Ans : Europe
 *Special Drawing Rights (SDR) is issued by
 Ans : IMF
 *Indians who attended, in the Bretton woods Conference
 Ans : R.K.Shanmugham Chetty and C.D.Deshmukh
 *First woman to become the Managing Director of IMF
 Ans : Christine Lagarde
 *The world famous Economist who participated in the meeting for the formation of IMF
 Ans : Irving Fisher
 *To secure financial stability, facilitate, International trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty around the world are the main objectives of 
Ans : IMF

 WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (WMO)
 *Headquarters 
Ans : Geneva 
*WMO was formed in 
Ans : 1950 
*Number of member countries 
Ans : 191 
*The UN Agency which studies the world climate and other atmospheric phenomena 
Ans : WMO
 *The predecessor of WMO
 Ans : International Meteorological Organization (IMO)
 *International Meteorological Organization was founded in
 Ans : 1873

 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU)
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Geneva
 *ITU was formed on
 Ans : May 17/1865
 *A specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies
 Ans : ITU
 *May 17
 Ans : World Telecommunication Day 
*November 21
 Ans : World Television Day

 UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS (UNCHR)
 * Headquarters 
* Geneva 
* UNCHR was formed in 
* 1946 
*UNCHR became the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) in 
Ans : 2006
 *UN General Assembly passed the Human Rights Resolution on
 Ans : December 10,1948 
*International Human Rights Day is observed on
 Ans : December 10
 *The architect of UN Human Rights Proclamation
 Ans : John Peters Humphrey 
*The American President who described the Human Rights proclamation as the International Magna Carta of all mankind 
Ans : Franklin.D.Roosevelt 
*UN started to observe Human Rights Day since 
Ans : 1950

 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD)
 *Headquarters 
Ans : Geneva
 *UNCTAD was formed in
 Ans : 1964
 *Member Countries
 Ans : 194
 *First meeting of UNCTAD was held in 
Ans : 1964 (Geneva)
 *Second meeting of UNCTAD was held in 
Ans : 1968 (New Delhi)

 WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANISATION(WIPO)
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Geneva
 *WIPO was formed in
 Ans : 1967
 *Member Countries
 Ans : 189
 *WIPO became the special agency of UNO in 
Ans : 1974
 *Intellectual Property Day is observed on 
Ans : April 26
 *Second meeting of UNCTAD was held in 
Ans : 1968 (New Delhi)
 *To encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world is the main objective of
 Ans : WIPO

 WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO)
 *Headquarters 
Ans : Geneva
 *WTO was formed on 
Ans : January 1,1995
 *Member Countries 
Ans : 164
 *Official languages
 Ans : English, French, Spanish
 *The predecessor of WTO 
Ans : GATT
 (General Agreement on-Tariffs and Trade)
 *The agreement signed by 123 nations on 15 April 1994 for replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
Ans : Marrakesh Agreement 
*GATT came into effect on 
Ans : January 1,1948
 *India became the member of WTO on 
Ans : January 1,1995
 *161st Member country of WTO
 Ans : Seychelles
 *162nd Member country of WTO
 Ans : Kazakhstan
 *163rd Member country of WTO
 Ans : Liberia
 *164th Member country of WTO
 Ans : Afghanistan

 UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME (UNEP)
 *Headquarters 
Ans : Nairobi 
*Formed on
 Ans : June 5,1972
 *Slogan
 Ans : Environment for Development
 *The UN Agency to coordinate its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices
 Ans : UNEP
 *The message of 2016 World Environment Day
 Ans : 'Go Wild For Life'

 COMMON WEALTH
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Marlborough House (London) 
*Came into effect in 
Ans : 1931
 *Member countries 
Ans : 53
 *53rd member country 
Ans : Rwanda
 *Countries left from the Commonwealth Nations
 Ans : Ireland, Zimbabwe
 *The meeting which caused the formation of Commonwealth Nations
 Ans : Imperial Meeting
 *Imperial Meeting was held in
 Ans : 1926
 *Former name of Commonwealth
 Ans : British Commonwealth
 *The symbolic head of Commonwealth
 Ans : British King or Queen
 *Commonwealth Secretariat came into effect in
 Ans : 1965
 *The head of the Commonwealth Secretariat
 Ans : Secretary
 *First Secretary of the Commonwealth
 Ans : Arnold Smith
 *First Indian to become the Secretary of Commonwealth
 Ans : Kamalesh Sharma
 *The meeting of Commonwealth heads is known as
 Ans : CHOGM
 *CHOGM
 Ans : Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 
*First CHOGM meeting was held in 
Ans : 1971 (Singapore)
 *CHOGM meeting in India was held at 
Ans : Goa(1983)
 *The member countries in Commonwealth which were not the colonies of Britain 
Ans : Rwanda, Mozambique 
*Indian State in which the Commonwealth cemetery is situated 
Ans : Manipur
 *Largest country in Commonwealth Nation in terms of area 
Ans : Canada
 *Most populated Commonwealth Country 
Ans : India

 COMMON WEALTH GAMES
 *International Commonwealth sport event which is attended by member “Countries ”
 Ans : Commonwealth Games 
*Father of Commonwealth Games 
Ans : Ashley Cooper.
 *Motto of Commonwealth Games
 Ans : Humanity, Equality, Destiny 
*First Commonwealth Games was held in 
Ans : Hamilton (Canada; 1730) 
*Number of member countries participated in the first Commonwealth games 
Ans : 11

 NON - ALIGNED MOVEMENT(NAM)
 *The Conference which caused the
 formation of NAM
 Ans : Bandung Conference (Indonesia)
 * Bandung Conference was held in 
Ans : 1955
 * The idea of NAM was proposed by 
Ans : V.K. Krishna Menon 
* NAM was formed in 
Ans : 1961
 *First meeting of NAM was held in 
Ans : Belgrade (1961)
 *The basics of NAM
 Ans : Panchasheel Agreement 
*The leaders who took initiative to the formation of NAM
 Ans : Jawaharlal Nehru,Marshal Tito (President, Yugoslavia)Gamal Abdul Nazar (President, Egypt)
 *NAM doesn't have a permanent headquarters
 *The number of countries which took part in the first meeting of NAM 
Ans : 25
 *First Indian to become the Secretary General of NAM
 Ans : Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
 *The related agency of NAM 
Ans : AFRICA Fund 
*Action for Resisting Invasion Colonialisation and Apartheid First Chairman of AFRICA Fund 
Ans : Rajiv Gandhi

 SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL CO-OPERATION (SAARC)
 *Headquarters
 Ans : Kathmandu (Nepal)
 *Founded on
 Ans : December 8,1985 (Dhaka)
 *Member countries
 Ans : 8
 *Member countries
 Ans : Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, India, Maldives, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka
 *Last member
 Ans : Afghanistan (2007)
 *The idea of SAARC was put forward by -
 Ans : Zia-Ur - Rahman(Bangladesh President)
 *The summit which decided to form SAARC
 Ans : Dhaka Summit (1985)
 *First Chairman of SAARC
 Ans : H.M.Ershad
 *First General Secretary of SAARC
 Ans : Abdul Ahzar
 *The idea of SAARC was put forward by 
 Ans : Zia-Ur-Rahman(Bangladesh President)
 *Largest regional intergovernmental organization
 Ans : SAARC
 *SAARC summits in India were held in
 Ans : 1986; 1995 and 2007
 *SAARC University is situated at
 Ans : New Delhi
 *Cultural capital of SAARC in 2017
 Ans : Dhaka
 * Largest member country in SAARC 
Ans : India
 *Smallest member country in SAARC 
Ans : Maldives
 *SAARC Agricultural Centre 
Ans : Dhaka
 *SAARC Meteorological Research Centre
 Ans : Dhaka
 *SAARC Forestry Centre 
Ans : Thimbu
 *SAARC Development Fund 
Ans : Thimbu
 *SAARC Documentation Centre 
Ans : New Delhi
 *SAARC Disaster Management Centre
 Ans : New Delhi
 *SAARC Coastal Management Centre
 Ans : Male
 *SAARC Information Centre
 Ans : Kathmandu
 * SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre
 Ans : Kathmandu
 *SAARC Human Resources and Development Centre
 Ans : Islamabad 
*SAARC Energy Centre 
Ans : Islamabad 
*SAARC Cultural Centre 
Ans : Islamabad

 DESIGNATED SAARC YEARS
 *1989 - SAARC Year of Combating Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking
 *1990 - SAARC Year of Girl Child
 *1991- SAARC Year of Shelter
 *1992 - SAARC Year of Environment
 *1993 - SAARC Year of Disabled Persons
 *1994 - SAARC Year of the Youth
 *1995 - SAARC Year of Poverty Eradication
 *1996 - SAARC Year of Literacy
 *1997 - SAARC Year of Participatory Governance
 *1999 - SAARC Year of Biodiversity Biodiversity 
*2002-2003 - SAARC Year of Contribution of Youth to Environment
 *2004 - SAARC Awareness Year for TB and HIV/AIDS
 *2005 - South Asia Tourism Year

 SAARC DECADES
 *1991-2000
 Ans : SAARC Decade of the Girl Child
 *2001-2010
 Ans : SAARC Decade of the Rights of the Child
 * 2006-2015
 Ans : Poverty Eradication 
*2010-2020
 Ans : Intra Regional Connectivity

Powerpacked Jkssb Questions

POWER PACK .
 *Largest Democracy - Republic of India 
*Largest Electorate - Republic of India 
*Largest Parliament - The National People's Congress (China)
 *Oldest Parliament - Althing(Iceland)
 *Oldest Republic - San Marino
 *Largest Country (by area) - Russia
 *Largest country (by population) - China
 *Most densely populated country - Monacco 
*Least populous country - Vatican
 *Largest city (Population) - Tokyo (Japan)
 *The oldest capital city - Damascus (Syria)
 *Oldest national flag - Denmark

 MAGELLAN ZONE.
 *Largest continent - Asia
 *Largest ocean - Pacific Ocean
 *Deepest ocean - Pacific
 *Deepest point in the Ocean - Mariana Trench in Pacific Ocean
 *Largest sea - South China Sea
 *Largest inland sea - Medilterranean sea
 *Longest River - Nile
 *Largest river- Amazon
 *Largest river basin - Amazon 
*Longest canal - Grand canal (china)
 *Longest Swimming - English Canal
 *Longest estuary - Ob estuary (Russia)
 *Longest Beach - Cox's bazar (Bangladesh)
 *Deepest lake - Baikal (Russia)
 *Highest lake - Titikaka (Bolivia) 
*Longest fresh water lake - Lake Tanganyka
 *Largest salt water lake - Caspian Sea 
*Largest artificial - lake Volta(by Surface area) (Ghana)
 *Highest waterfalls - Angel Falls (Kerepakupai Vena) (Venezuela) 
*Largest bay - Hudson Bay (North Canada) 
*Largest gulf - Gulf of Mexico
 *Largest gorge - Grand Canyon (USA)
 *Deepest gorge - Kali Gandaki in Nepal
 *Largest delta - Sundarbans (India & Bangladesh) 
*Largest reef - Great Barrier Reef (Australia)
 *Largest peninsula - Arabia 
*Largest island - Greenland
 *Largest archipelago - Indonesia
 *Lowest point on earth - Dead seashore
 *Largest dam - Three Gorges Dam (China)
 *Largest Army - People's Liberation Army(China)
 *Largest Navy - United States Navy 
*Largest Air force - United States Air force
 *Largest non military cemetery - Ohlsdorf Cemetery (Germany)

 ECO-FRIENDLY.
 *Largest National park - Greenland National Park (Green land) 
*Largest animal - Blue Whale
 *Tallest animal - Giraffe
 *Largest land animal - African Bush Elephant
 *Fastest animal in water - Sail fish
 *Largest bird - Ostrich
 *Largest sea bird - Albatross
 *Largest forest - Coniferous Forests of Northern Russia
 *Longest mountain range - Andes(South-America)
 *Longest cave - Mammoth cave (USA)
 *Tallest flower -Titan Aarum
 *Tallest Flowering Plant - Eucalyptus
 *Tallest tree - The Redwood Sequoia Tree

 DIVINE NATURE
 *Biggest Fresh water Fish - Cat Fish
 *Biggest reptile - Saltwater Crocodile
 *Biggest lizard - Komodo Dragon
 *Biggest eggs - Ostrich Eggs
 *Longest snake- Anaconda

 HOT SPOT .
 *Largest hot desert - Sahara ( Africa)
 *Largest cold desert - Gobi (Mongolia) 
*Largest mountain range - The Himalayas
 *Largest Active Volcano - Mauna Loa
 *Tallest active Geyser- Steam Boat in Yellowstone National Park (USA)
 *Largest land mass - The Eurasian Landmass
 *Hottest Place - Al Azizia (Libya)
 *Highest capital city - La Paz (Bolivia)
 *Highest Mountain peak - Mt. Everest (Nepal)
 *Highest plateau - Pamir (Tibet)
 *Driest place - Atacama

 IN THE NAME OF GOD.
 *Largest temple - Angkorwat (Cambodia)
 *Largest Budha temple - Borobudur (Indonesia)
 *Largest church - St. Peter's Basilica,(Rome)
 *Largest synagogue - Belz Great Synagogue (Jerusalem) 
*Largest mosque - Masjid al - Haram (Mecca

 HAPPY JOURNEY
 *Largest airline - Delta Airlines (USA)
 *Largest passenger plane - Airbus A 380
 *Largest port - Shanghai(China)
 *Largest airport - King Fahd International Airport at Dammam (in area)
 *Highest airport - Daacheng Udaing (China)
 *Largest Cruise ship - Allure of the Seas
 *Longest road - Pan American Highway 
*Longest railway tunnel - Gotthard base Tunnel(Switzerland)
 *Longest railway Platform - Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh)
 *Longest railway line -Trans-Siberian Railway(Russia)
 *Longest Arch bridge - Chaotianmen Bridge (Yangtze river - China)
 *Longest corridor - Rameswaram Temple Coridor(India)
 *Largest palace - Imperial Palace (Beijing) 
*Largest library - United States Library of Congress(Washington D.C)
 *Longest road tunnel - Laerdal Tunnel (Norway)
 *Longest bridge over water - Lake Pontchartrain Causeway

 MAN MADE.
 *Largest wall
 Ans : The Great Wall of China 
*Largest stadium
 Ans : Strahov (Czech Republic) 
*Largest Cricket stadium
 Ans : Melbourne (Australia)
 *Biggest football stadium
 Ans : Marakana (Brazil)
 *Largest Irrigation Scheme
 Ans : Great Man - Made River (Africa) 
*Largest Monolithic statue
 Ans : State of Buddha (Hyderabad) 
*Largest bank
 Ans : World Bank (Washington)
 *Tallest free standing Tower
 Ans : Tokyo Skytree (Japan)
 *Tallest building
 Ans : Burj Khalifa (Dubai)
 *Tallest office building
 Ans : Taipe 101 (Taiwan)
 *Tallest statue
 Ans : Spring Temple Buddha (China)
 *Tallest minaret - Sultan Hassan Mosque's Minaret (Egypt)
 *Largest open - Indira Gandhi university National Open University (New Delhi)
 *Largest embassy - US Embassy in Baghdad

 THROUGH LENS .
 *Smallest continent - Australia
 *Smallest ocean - Arctic
 *Smallest republic - Nauru
 *Smallest country - Vatican
 *Smallest flowering plant - Wolfia
 *Smallest Mammal - Bumblebee Bat
 *Smallest landmass - The Australian mainland
 *Shortest river - Roe river

 POWERING THE NATION.
 COUNTRIES PARLIAMENT
 *Afghanistan - Shora
 *America - Congress
 *Algeria - Popular National Assembly
 *Argentina - National Congress
 *Australia - Federal Parliament
 *Bangladesh - Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban
 *Belgium - Federal Parliament
 *China - National People's Congress
 *Cuba - National Assembly of People's power 
*Denmark - Folketing 
*Egypt - People Assembly 
*Estonia - Riigikogu 
*Finland - Eduskunta 
*France - National Assembly 
*Germany - Bundestag and Bundesrat 
*Greece - Hellenic Parliament 
*Greenland - Landstraad 
*Iceland - Althing 
*Indonesia - People's Consultative Assembly 
*Iran - Majlis 
*Israel - Knesset 
*Japan - Diet 
*Korea (North) - Supreme People's Assembly 
*Korea (South) - National Assembly 
*Latvia - Salima 
*Luxembourg - Chamber of Deputies 
*Myanmar - Peoples Assembly 
*Maldives - Majlis 
*Mexico - Congress of the union 
*Netherlands - States General
 *Nepal - National Panchayat
 *Norway - Storting
 *Pakistan - Majilis - e-Shoora
 *Poland - Sejm
 *Russia - State Duma
 *Saudi Arabia - Majlis-al-Shura 
*South Africa - House of Assembly
 *Spain - Cortes Generals
 *Sweden - Riksdag
 *Tanzania - Bunge
 *Ukraine - Verkhovna Rada

 OFFICIAL BOOK COUNTRY
 *Blue Book - Britain
 *Green Book - Italy
 *Orange Book - Netherland
 *White Book - Germany, China, Portugal
 *White Paper - India
 *Grey Book - Japan, Belgium
 *Yellow Book - France

 THE WORLD AROUND
 AFRICA
 COUNTRY CURRENCY CAPITAL
 *Algeria - Dinar - Algiers
 *Angola - Kwanza - Luanda
 *Benin - CFA Franc - Porto-Novo
 *Botswana - Pula - Gabarone
 *Chad - CFA Franc - N' Djamena
 *Cameroon - Comorian - Franc Yaounde
 *Comoros - Comorian - Franc Moroni
 *Egypt - Pound - Cairo
 *Eritrea - Nakfa - Asmara
 *Ethiopia - Birr - Addis Abada
 *Gabon - CFA Franc - Librevile
 *Gambia - Dalasi - Banjul
 *Ghana - Cedi - Acera
 *Guinea - Guinean Franc - Conakry
 *Kenya - Keniyan Shilling - Nairobi
 *Lesetho - Lotti - Masseru
 *Liberia - Liberian Dollar- Monrovia
 *Libya - Libian Dinar - Tripoli
 *Madagascar - Ariary - Antananarivo
 *Mali - France CFA - Bamako
 *Mauritania - Ugiya - Nuwakchot
 *Mauritius - Mauritian Rupee - Port Louis
 *Morocco - Morrocan Dirham - Rabat
 *Mozambique - Metical - Maputo
 *Namibia - Namibian Dollar - Windhoek
 *Niger - CFA Franc - Niamey
 *Nigeria - Naira - Abuja
 *Republic of Congo - CFA Franc - Brasavilla
 *Rwanda - Rwandan franc - Kigali
 *Siena Leone - Leone - Free Town
 *Somalia - Somalian Shilling - Mogadishu
 *Sudan (North) - Sudaneese Found - Khartoum
 *Sudan (South) - South Sudaneese - Juba pound 
*Swaziland - Lilangeni - Mbabane,Lobamba
 *South Africa Rand - Cape Town (legislative)
 *Pretoria(executive) Blomfontein(Judicial)
 *Tanzania -Tanzanion Shilling - Dodoma Dar-s-salam
 *Togo - Franc CFA - Lome
 *Uganada - Uganda Shilling - Kampala
 *Zambia - Zambian Kwacha - Lusaka
 *Zimbabwe - Zimbabian Dollar - Harare 

ASIA
 COUNTRY CURRENCY CAPITAL
 *Afghanistan - Afghani - Kabul
 *Armenia - Dram - Yeravan
 *Azerbyjan - Manath - Baku
 *Bahrain - Dinar - Al-Manamah
 *Bangladesh - Taka - Dhaka
 *Bhutan - Ngultrum - Thimphu
 *Cambodia - Riel - Phnom Penh
 *China - Yuan - Beijing
 *East Timur - U.S Dollar - Dili
 *Georgia - Lari -Tbilisi
 *Hong Kong - Hong Kong Dollar - Victoria
 *Indonesia - Rupiah - Jakarta
 *Iran -Rial - Tehran
 *Iraq -Iraqi Dinar - Baghdad
 *Japan - Yen - Tokyo
 *Jordan - Dinar - Amman
 *Korea (North) - Won - Pyongyang
 *Korea (South) - Won - Seoul
 *Kuwait -Kuwait Dinar -Kuwair City
 *Laos -Kip -Vientiane
 *Lebanon -Pound -Beirut
 *Malaysia -Ringgit -Kuala Lumpur
 *Mongolia -Tugrik -Ulan Bator 
*Myanmar -Kyat -Nay pyi daw
 *Nepal - Nepalese Rupee - Kathmandu
 *Oman - Oman Rial - Muscat 
*Pakistan - Pakistani Rupee - Islamabad 
*Philippines - Peso - Manila
 *Qatar - Riyal - Doha
 *Saudi Arabia - Saudi Rial - Riyadh
 *Singapore - Dollar - Singapore City
 *Sri Lanka - Rupee - Sri Jayewar denepura kotte
 *Syria - Syrian Pound - Damascus
 *Taiwan - Dollar - Taipei
 *Thailand - Baht - Bangkok
 *United Arab Emirates - Dirham - Abu Dhabi
 *Uzbekistan - Som - Tashkent
 *Vietnam - Dong - Hanoi
 *Yemen - Riyal - Sana

 AUSTRALIA
 COUNTRY CURRENCY CAPITAL
 *Australia - Dollar - Canberra
 *Fiji - Fiji Dollar - Suva
 *Kiribati - Australian Dollar - Tarawa
 *Micronesia - U.S Dollar - Palikir
 *Marshal Island - U.S Dollar - Majuro
 *Nauru - Australian Dollar - Yaren District
 *New Zealand - Newzealand Dollar -Wellington
 *Papua New Guinea - Kina - Portrmorse by
 *Samoa - Tala - Apia
 *Solomon Islands - Solomon Islands Dollar -Honiara
 *Tonga - Paanga - Nuku Alofa
 *Tuvalu - Tuvaluan Dollar - Dunaputti
 *Vanuatu - Vatu - Port Vila 

EUROPE
 COUNTRY CURRENCY CAPITAL
 *Albania -Lek - Tirana
 *Austria -Euro -Vienna
 *Belgium -Euro -Brussels
 *Denmark -Krone -Copenhagen
 *Iceland -Krona -Reykjavik
 *Ireland -Euro -Dublin
 *France -Euro -Paris 
*Finland -Euro -Helsinki 
*Germany -Euro -Berlin 
*Greece -Euro -Athens
 *Hungary -Forint -Budapest
 *Italy -Euro -Rome
 *Netherlands -Euro -Amsterdam 
*Norway -Krone -Oslo
 *Poland -Zloty -Warsaw
 *Portugal -Euro -Lisbon
 *Romania -Leu -Bucharest
 *Spain -Euro -Madrid
 *Sweden -Swedish Krona - Stockholm
 *Switzerland -Swiss Franc -Bern
 *Russia - Rouble - Moscow
 *United Kingdom - Pound Sterling - London
 *Vatican - Euro - Vatican City
 *Ukraine - Hryvna - Kiev
 *Serbia - Dinar - Belgrade
 *Montenegro - Euro - podgorica
 *Malta - Euro - Valletta
 *Monaco - Euro - Monaco
 *Sanmarino - Euro - Sanmarino
 *Moldova - Leu - Chisinau (Kishine 
*Turky - Turkish Lira - Ankara

 NORTH AMERICA
 COUNTRY CURRENCY CAPITAL
 *Barbados - Barbados Dollar - Bridgetown
 *Canada - Canadian Dollar - Ottawa
 *Costa Rica - Costarican Colon - San Jose
 *Cuba - Peso - Havana
 *Guatemala - Quetzal - Gautemala City
 *Jamaica - Jamaican Dollar - Kingston
 *Mexico - Mexican Peso - Mexico City
 *Nicaragua - Cordoba - Managua
 *Panama - Balboa - Panama City
 *United States - U.S Dollar - Washington DC
 *Belize - Belize Dollar - Belmopan
 *Dominica - East Caribbean Dollar - Roseau
 *Grenada - East Caribbean Dollar -St.George's
 *ST Kitts and Nevi's - East Caribbean Dollar - Basseterre
 *St. Lucia - East Caribbean Dollar - Castries - 
*St. Vincent - East Caribbean -Kingstown Dollar 

SOUTH AMERICA
 COUNTRY CURRENCY CAPITAL
 *Argentina - Peso - Bunos Aires
 *Bolivia - Boliviano - La Pas
 *Brazil - Riyal - Brasilia
 *Chile - Chilian Peso -Santiyago
 *Colombia - Columbian - PesoBogota
 *Ecuador - U.S Dollar - Quito
 *Guyana - Gayanis Dollar - GeorgeTown
 *Paraguay - Guarani - Asention
 *Peru - Newosoul - Lima
 *Suriname - Surinamese - Dollar Paramaribo
 *Uruguay - Uruguan Peso - Montevedo
 *Venezuela - Boliver - Karakas

 FOUTH ESTATE
 NEWS AGENCIES
 COUNDTRY NEWS AGENCY
 *British - Renters
 *China - Xinhua
 *Crotica - Hina
 *France - Agence France presse (DFAP)
 *Germany - Dentas Press 
*India - Press Trust of India 
*India - Samchar Bharat 
*India - UNI (United News of India)
 *Indonesia - Antara
 *Iran - IRNA
 *Italy - ANSA
 *Italy - Interpress Service
 *Japan - Kyos
 *Kenya - IRN
 *Malaysia - Bernama
 *Palaestine - WAFA
 *Qatar - Al Jazeera
 *Russia - Interfax
 *Russia - Tass,ITAR
 *South Africa - SAPA
 *South Korea - Yonhap
 *USA - Associated Press
 *USA - United Pree international (UPI) 

MORNING COFFEE
 NEWS PAPER COUNTRY
 *The Daily Mirror - England
 *The Times - England
 *The Sun - England
 *Morning Star - England
 *The Guardian - England
 *The Daily Express - England
 *Daily Telegraph - UK
 *New York Times - USA
 Morning News - USA
 *Washington Post - USA
 *Yomiyurishimbun - Japan
 *Quede Newservice - Japan
 *The Island - Srilanka
 *Morning News - Bangladesh
 *The Dawn - Pakistan
 *Trud - Russia
 *People's Daily - China
 *Le Figaro - France
 *Le Monde - France
 *Eastern Sun - Singapore
 *Jakarta Post - Indonesia
 *Daily express - Malaysia

 MAESTROS .
 *Father of Super computer - Seymour Cray
 *Father of Orkut - Orkut Buyukkokten
 *Father of Facebook - Mark Zuckerberg
 *Father of Whatsapp - Jan Koum
 *Father of Twitter
 Ans : Jack Dorsey
 *Father of E-mail 
Ans : Ray Tomilson
 *Father of hot mail 
Ans : Sabir Bhatia
 *Father of Internet 
Ans : Winton Cerf
 *Father of Psychology 
Ans : Sigmund Freud
 *Father of Philosophy
 Ans : Socrates
 *Father of Economics
 Ans : Adam Smith
 *Father of Sociology
 Ans : Auguste Comte
 *Father of Biology
 Ans : Aristotle
 *Father of Cell-Science 
Ans : Robert Hook
 *Father of Bacteriology
 Ans : Louis Pasteur
 *Father of Medicine
 Ans : Hippocrates
 *Father of Homoeopathy
 Ans : Samuel Hahnemann 
*Father of Genetics
 Ans : Gregor Mendel 
*Father of Anatomy 
Ans : Herophilis
 *Father of test tube baby 
Ans : Robert-G.Edward
 *Father of Green Revolution 
Ans : Norman Borlaug 
*Father of Law
 Ans : John Locke
 *Father of Geometry
 Ans : Euclid
 *Father of Mathematics
 Ans : Pythagoras
 *Father of Logarithm
 Ans : John Nappier
 *Father of Computer
 Ans : Charles Babbage
 *Father of Nuclear Physics
 Ans : Ernest Rutherford
 *Father of Atom Bomb
 Ans : Otto Hahn
 *Father of Neutron Bomb
 Ans : Samuel T- Kohen 
*Father of History 
Ans : Herodotus
 *Father of Scientific history
 Ans : Thucydides
 *Father of Modern history
 Ans : Ranke
 *Father of English Poetry 
Ans : Jeoffrey Chaucer 
*Father of English Essay 
Ans : Francis Bacon 
*Father of Printing 
Ans : Guttenberg 
*Father of Painting
 Ans : Leonardo Da Vinci 
*Father of Renaissance 
Ans : Petrarch
 *Father of Reformation 
Ans : Martin Luther 
*Father of Democracy 
Ans : Pericles
 *Father of Greek Democracy
 Ans : Cleisthenes
 *Father of socialism
 Ans : Robert Owen
 *Father of Co-operation
 Ans : Robert Owen
 *Father of Jurisprudence
 Ans : John Locke
 *Father of Bangladesh 
Ans : Sheikh Mujib Rehman
 *Father of Pakistan 
Ans : Muhammed Ali Jinnah
 *Father of Tanzania
 Ans : Julius Nyerere
 *Father of Modern Cartoon
 Ans : William Hogarth
 *Father of Modern Drama
 Ans : Henrik.J.Ibsen
 *Father of Modern Cinema
 Ans : D.W.Griffith
 *Father of Modern Tourism
 Ans : Thomas Cook
 *Father of Indology
 Ans : William Jones
 *Father of Modern Olympics
 Ans : Pierre-de-Coubertin
 *Father of Asian games
 Ans : Gura Dutt Sondhi
 *Father of Motor Car
 Ans : Hentry Ford 

TAKE OFF
 INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES BY
 *Abacus - Charles Babbage
 *Adding Machine - Blaise Pascal
 *Aeroplane - Wright Brothers
 *Air brake - George Westinghouse
 *Air Conditioner - Willis Haviland Carrier
 *Antiseptic Surgery - Lord Joseph Lister
 *Artificial Heart - Dr. Paul Winched
 *Aspirin - Felix Hoffman
 *Atom - John Dalton
 *Atom Bomb - Robert Oppenheimer
 *Atomic Number - Mosley
 *Atomic Physics - Enrico Fermi
 *Atomic Structure - Bohr and Rutherford
 *Atomic Theory - Dalton
 *Blood Group - Karl Landsteiner
 *Barometer - Torricelli
 *Bicycle - MacMillan
 *Bifocal Lens - Benjamin Franklin
 *Binomial Nomen clature - Carl Linnaeus
 *Blood Circulation - Harvey
 *Blood Groups - Karl Landsteiner
 *Chemical Structure - August Kekule
 *Chemotherapy - Paul Ehrlich
 *Child Development - Jean Piaget
 *Chloroform - James Harrison and James Young Simpson
 *Cinema -Lumiere Brothers
 *Circulation of Blood - William Harvey
 *Cholera Bacillus - Robert Koch
 *Computer - Charles Babbage
 *Cresco graph - J.C. Bose
 *C.T. Scan - Godfrey Hounsefield
 *Dynamo - Michael Faraday
 *DDT - Dr. Paul Muller
 *Dynamite - Alfred Nobel
 *Electric battery - Volta
 *Electricity - Faraday
 *Electron - J.J. Thomson
 *Electric Iron - Henry. W. Seeley
 *Electric Lamp - Thomas Alva Edison
 *Electromagnetic Theory -Maxwell
 *Electron Theory -Bohr
 *Electronic Computer -Dr. Alan M. Turing
 *Elevator -Elisha G. Otis
 *Fax -Alexander Bain
 *Fountain pen -Waterman
 *Genetic Code -Frederick Sanger
 *Geometry -Euclid
 *Germ Theory of Disease -Louis Pasteur
 *Gramophone -Thomas Alva Edison
 *Gun Powder -Roger Bacon
 *Heavy Hydrogen -Urey
 *Helicopter -Broquett
 *Heliocentric Universe -Nicolaus Copernicus
 *Hovercraft -Christopher Cockrell
 *Insulin -Banting & Best
 *Law of Gravitation -Isaac Newton
 *Law of Heredity -G. Mendal
 *LASER -Theodore Maiman
 *Lift -Elisa G. Otis
 *Lightning Conductor -Benjamin Franklin
 *Logarithm -John Napier
 *MASER -Charles.H.Townes
 *Mouse -Douglass Engelbart
 *Microphone -Graham Bell
 *Microscope -Janssen
 *Neon -Wallace Carothers
 *Oxygen -J.B. Priestly
 *Penicillin -Alexander Fleming 
*Petrol Engine -Karl Benz 
*Photocopying machine -Chestar Carlson 
*Printing -Guttenburg
 *Radar -Dr. A.H. Taylor and L.C. Young 
*Radio -G. Marconi 
*Radio transmitter -Alexanderson 
*Radioactive Dating -Willard Libby
 *Artificial Radioactivity -Marie Curie
 *Natural Radio-activity -Henry Becquerel
 *Radium -Madame Curie
 *Railway Engine -Stephenson
 *Refrigerator -James Harrison
 *Safety Lamp -Humphry Davy
 *Safety Match -John Edvard Lund Strom
 *Safety Pin -Walter Hunt
 *Safety Razor -Gillette
 *Sewing Machine -Barthelling Thimonnier
 *Short Hand -Pitman
 *Steam Engine -James watt
 *Stethescope -Rene Laennec
 *Submarine -Cornelius Drebbel
 *Super Computer -Seymour Cray
 *Telegraph Code -Morse
 *Telescope -Galileo
 *Television -J.L Baird
 *Transistor -William Shockly and John Bardeen
 *Typewriter -Sholes
 *Telephone -Alexander Graham Bell
 *Theory of Evolution -Charles Darwin
 *Theory of Relativity -Albert Einstein
 *Tyre -Dunlop
 *Ultra Sound Scan -Ian Donald
 *Vacuum flask -Sir James Dewar
 *Vaccination -Edward Jenner
 *Vulcanised Rubber -Charles Goodyear
 *Wireless -Marconi
 *X-ray -W.C Rontgen
 *Xerox machine -Chester Carlson

 THEY CALL ME .
 *Light of the World -Jesus Christ
 *MS Good Shepherd -Jesus Christ
 *Prince of Pilgrimage -Hiuen Tsang
 *Prince of Travellers -Marco Polo
 *Rascal Monk -Rasputin
 *Apostle of Free Trade -Richard Cobden
 *Columbus of Space - Yuri Gagarin 
*Master of Suspense - Alfred Hitchcock
 *Second Duke -Benitto Mussolini
 *Iron Duke - Duke of Wellington
 *Poet's Poet -Edmund Spenser
 *Desert Fox -Erwin Rommer
 *Lady with the Lamp - Florence Nightingale
 *G.B.S -Geroge Bernard Shaw
 *Little corporal -Napolean Bonaparte
 *Maid of Orleans -Joan of Arc
 *Fuhrer (Fuehrer) -Adolf Hitler
 *Man of blood and Iron -Otto von Bismark
 *Maiden Queen -Queen Elizabeth I 
*Bard of Avon -William Shakespeare
 *Grand Old man of Britain - Gladstone
 *Philosopher Teacher -Aristotle 
*Iron Butterfly - Margarer
 *Iron Lady -Thatcher

LIST OF SOME POPULAR SCIENTIFIC NAME

*SCIENTIFIC NAME...*
• What is the scientific name of man? - Homo sapiens
• What is the scientific name of frog? - Rana Tigrina
• What is the scientific name of cat? - Felis Domestica
• What is the scientific name of rat? - Rattus
What is the scientific name of lizard? - Lacertilia
• What is the scientific name of dog? - Canis Familiaries
• What is the scientific name of cow? - Bose Indicus
• What is the scientific name of buffalo? - Bubalus bubolis
• What is the scientific name of oxen? - Boss Primigijus Taurus
• What is the scientific name of goat? - Cepta Hitamus
• What is the scientific name of the sheep? - Ovez Arise
• What is the scientific name of pig? - Suspresco domestica
• What is the scientific name of lion? - Panthera leo
• What is the scientific name of tiger? - Panthera tigris
• What is the scientific name of cheetah? - Panthera pardus
• What is the scientific name of the bear? - Ursus matitimus carnivara
• What is the scientific name of the rabbit? - Orctocellagus cubulus
• What is the scientific name of the deer? - Allas Elafas
• What is the scientific name of camel? - Camellas Domedarius
• What is the scientific name of fox? - Canide
• What is the scientific name of Langur? - Hominodia
• What is the scientific name of reindeer? - Russervus duWusselli
• What is the scientific name of the fly? - Masca Domestica
• What is the scientific name of peacock? - Pavo cristatus
• What is the scientific name of elephant? - Eiffel Indica
• What is the scientific name of Dolphin? - Platinist gangetica
• What is the scientific name of the horse? - Equus Cabellus
• What is the scientific name of donkey? - Equus Asinus
• What is the scientific name of mango? - Magnifera indica
• What is the scientific name of Angur? - Vitious
• What is the scientific name of orange? - Citrus sinensis
• What is the scientific name of coconut? - Coco nucifera
• What is the scientific name of apple? - Melas pumia / domestica
• What is the scientific name of pineapple? - Annas Commos
• What is the scientific name of papaya? - Carica papaya
• What is the scientific name of pears? - Pyrus cuminis
• What is the scientific name of banana? - Muse Paradisiaca
• What is the scientific name of litchi? - litchi chinensis
• What is the scientific name of tamarind? - Tamar Indus Indica
• What is the scientific name of cucumber? - Kusumis sativus
• What is the scientific name of plum? - Zizifs Mauritiana
• What is the scientific name of beet sugar? - Beta Valgaris
• What is the scientific name of Jamun? - Shayjiam Kumini
• What is the scientific name of sugarcane? - Sugarence Eficinarum
• What is the scientific name of maize? - Gia table
• What is the scientific name of millet? - Penicillum america
• What is the scientific name of paddy? - Horizon sativate
• What is the scientific name of wheat? - Triticum Astivium
• What is the scientific name of cotton? - Gasify
• What is the scientific name of Sarason? - Brassica Compasters
• What is the scientific name of coffee? - Coffia Arabica
• What is the scientific name of tea? - Thea cyanenis
• What is the scientific name of Basil? - Oxygen tensufflorum
• What are the scientific names of Eloviras? - Elovira
• What is the scientific name of opium? - Papyr Somniferum
• What is the scientific name of cashew nuts? - Anacardium Aromatikam
• What is the scientific name of almonds? - Prunus Armenica
• What is the scientific name of the peanut? - Arakis hijopia
• What is the scientific name of red pepper? - Capsium enum
• What is the scientific name of black pepper? - Piper nigrum
• What is the scientific name of saffron? - Crocus sativius
• What is the scientific name of the Fennel? - phenikulam vulgare
• What is the scientific name of cumin? - Quinium seminium
• What is the scientific name of turmeric? - Curcuma llga
• What is the scientific name of lemon? - Citrus limbon
• What is the scientific name of gooseberry? - Philanthus Embica
• What is the scientific name of coriander? - Coreyndam sativum

Important Biology Question for Laboratory Assistant With Answers

Important Biology Question for Laboratory Assistant with Answers

1. What is contained in Chlorophyll ? Magnesium·
2. From which part of the plant is turmeric obtained? Stem
3. Lacrymal glands are situated in the___? Eye Orbit
4. The specific role of Vitamin K is in the synthesis of Prothrombin
5. Which Part of plant is important for the life cycle of plant? Flower
6. Increased RBC's in the blood leads to a condition called___? Polycythemia
7. Name the hormone that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood . Insulin
8. The human faces is yellow in colour due to the presence of a pigment called___? Urobilin
9. Which enzyme is found in human saliva? Ptyalin
10. Hansen's disease is also known as___? Leprosy
11. What is systolic and diastolic pressure in a healthy man? 120mm & 80mm
12. Which is considered as the strongest natural fibre? Silk
13. The deficiency of which leads to dental caries? Fluorine
14. Companion cells are unique to___? Angiosperms
15. The smallest bone in the human body is___? Stapes
16. A person feel fatigued due to depositon of which acid in their muscles? Lactic Acid
17. How many bones are present in human skull? 22
18. Which lobe of human brain is associated with hearing? Temporal Lobe
19. Upper most layer of skin is called ___? Epidermis
20. Motor skills are associated with which part of the brain? Frontal Lobes
21. Blood group was discovered by whom? Landsteiner
22. The ph value of human blood is__? 7.40
23. Name the largest gland in the human body? Liver
24. What is the chemical name of a substance which kills rats? White Phosphorus
25. The metal present in the haemoglobin is __ . Iron
26. Which mosquito is the carrier of Zika virus? Aedes
27. Name the gas used for making vegetable ghee? Hydrogen
28. Which part of brain is centre of thirst hunger and sleep? Hypothalamus
29. Which regulates the quantum of light entering the human eye? Iris
30. DNA stands for __. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
31. What percentage of water is lost during transpiration? 99%
32. Pyramid of energy is ____? Always upright
33. Edward Jenner is related with which disease? Small pox
34. The hormone used as an oral contraceptive is ____. Progesterone ·
35. Which vitamin is considered to be a hormone? Vitamin D
36. The process of photosynthesis involves conversion of what? Solar energy into chemical energy
37. Who explained about the blood circulation for the first time? William Harvey
38. og bite can cause rabies. Which other animal can also cause rabies? Bat
39. Saliva helps in the digestion of which thing? Starch
40. Which is the sweetest sugar? Fructose
41. Which enzyme is present inall members of the animal kingdom except Protozoa? Amylase
42. Which is known as graveyard of RBC's ? Spleen
43. Which disease is caused by the bite of a mad dog Hydrophobia
44. What is the normal cholesterol level in humanblood? 180-200 mg/dL
45. Who was the first to isolate Gene? Dr. Hargobind Khurana
46. Which cell organelles function as the power house of a living cell? Mitochondria
47. Nobel Prize winning scientist James D. Watson is known for his work in which area? Genetics
48. What is theBranch of science which deals with the study of skin of man? Dermatology
49. Which test helps in diagnosis of cancer? Biopsy Test
50. Which major chemical compound found in human kidney stones? Calcium oxalat
51. Sex determination of child is done by whose chromosome? Father
52. What is the name of first clones sheep ? Dolly
53. What is known as 'kitchen of cell'? Chloroplast
54. Enlargment of which gland takes place due to deficiency of iodine? Thyroid
55. Which part of human brain isthe regulating centre for swallowing and vomiting? Medulla Oblongata
56. What are Bryophytes ? Amphibious
57. The number of Chromosomes in the human gene is ___ 46
58. Polio is caused by whom? Virus
59. Ductless glands are known as___? Endocrine glands
60. The first vaccine injected into a just born baby is ______. BCG
61. Which are phagocytes in liver ? Kupffer cells 
62. Which gland disapear during old age? Thymus
63. The study of Dendrology isassociated with___? Trees
64. Theory of natural selection was proposed by_______ Charles Darwin
65. By which doctor was the first successful heart transplant in India performed? Dr. Venugopal
66. The food poisoning is causedby___. Clostrideam boutulium
67. Which acid is found in 'Tomato' ? Oxalic Acid
68. Haematopoiesis take place in _____? Bone marrow
69. Which part of human brain is affected by alcohol? Cerebellum
70. Ascariasis is caused by __? Round Worm
71. Turpentine oil is obtained from___? Pinus
72. Which salt is found in bone in largest amount? Calcium Phosphate
73. Genes are made by___? Polynucleotide
74. Which disease is known as 'silent killer'? High Blood pressure
75. By whom was oral polio vaccine discovered? Jonas Salk
76. The compound used in anti-malarial drug is___? Chloroquine
77. Which is responsible for transport of food and other substances in plants?Phloem
78. BCG vaccination (Bacillus Calmette Guerine) is injected to get immunity from__? Tuberculosis
79. First vaccine produced by bio-technology was used against which virus? Hepatitis-B
80. Alcoholic drink contains___? Ethyl Alcohol
81. Xerophthalmia is a disease caused by lack of which vitamin? Vitamin A
82. Which is responsible for the process of cell division ? Mitosis · 83. What is known as 'Suicidalbags of cell'? Lysosome
84. The plants, which grow under water stress conditions are called_? Xerophytes
85. Which metal is present in Insulin? Zinc
86. Most of the red, blue and purple colours of plants are due to a pigment called__? Anthocyanin
87. The filtering of blood through an artificial kidney is called__? Dialysis
88. Animals store glucose in the form of__? Glycogen
89. Who invented penicillin? Alexander Fleming
90. The longest and largest bone in the human body is__? Femur
91. Which is known as master gland in man? Pituitary gland
92. Which vitamin is essential for the coagulation of blood? Vitamin K
93. Which insect spreads kala azar Sand Fly
94. Name the smallest functional unit of the kidney? Nephron
95. What is the smallest structural and functionalunit of nervous system? Neuron
96. Which animal have no blood but they respire? Hydra
97. What is the Dental formula of man? 2123/2123
98. The biogas used for cooking is amixture of ___? Methane & Carbondioxide 
99. Which plant yeilds biodiesel or biofuel? Jatropha Curcas
100. The most serious air pollutant causing health hazard is___? Sulphur dioxide

National Highways in India

National Highways in India


• NH 1 - Delhi-Jalandhar-Amritsar-Wagah Border*
• NH 1A - Jalandhar-Jammu-Srinagar-Uri
• NH 2 - Delhi-Agra-Allahabad-Kolkata
• NH 3 - Agra-Indore-Dhule-Mumbai
• NH 4 - Thane-Pune-Bangalore-Chennai
• NH 5 - Jharpokaria-Baleshwar-Cuttack-Vijaywada-Chennai
• NH 6 - Dhule-Nagpur-Kolkata
• NH 7 - Varanasi-Nagpur-Bangalore- Kannyakumari
• NH 8 - Delhi-Jaipur-Ahmadabad-Mumbai
• NH 8A - Mandvi - Ahmadabad
• NH 8B - Porbandar to Bamanbor
• NH 8D - Somnath to Jetpur
• NH 9 - Pune-Solapur-Hyderabad-Vijaywada
• NH 10 - Pacca-Chisti-Fazilika-Abohar-Delhi
• NH 11 - Agra-Jaipur-Bikaner
• NH 12 - Jaipur-Bhopal-Jabalpur
• NH 13 - Solapur-Bijapur-Chitradurga
• NH 14 - Radhanpur- Sirohi-Beawar
• NH 15 - Pathankot- Amritsar-Jaisalmer- Samkhiyali
• NH 16 - Nizamabad-Mancheral-Jagdalpur
• NH 17 - Panvel - Mapusa - Mangalore-Kozhikode
• NH 18 - Kurnool- Kalakada- Chittoor
• NH 19 - Ghazipur - Rudrapur- Sonpur-Hajipur- Patna
• NH 20 - Pathankot-Gaggal-Palampur- Mandi
• NH 21 - Chandigarh- Bilaspur-Mandi-Kullu-Manali
• NH 22 - Ambala-Kalka-Solan-Rampur-Jangi-Khab
• NH 23 - Chas-Ramgarh-Ranchi-Samal-Nuhata
• NH 24 - Delhi-Bareilly-Lucknow
• NH 25 - Lucknow-Jhansi-Shivpuri
• NH 26 - Jhansi-Sagar-Lakhnadon
• NH 27 - Allahabad - Sohagi- Mangawan
• NH 28 - Lucknow to Barauni
• NH 29 - Varanasi- Sarnath- Gorakhpur
• NH 30 - Mohania -Kochas-Patna- Bakhtiyarpur
• NH 31 - Barhi-Chandi-Purnia-Nalbari- Guwahati
• NH 32 - Gobindpur- Asansol- Purliya-Jamshedpur
• NH 33 - Barhi -Hazirabagh- Chandil- Baharagora
• NH 34 - Kolkata -Rajinagar- Durgapur- Dalkhola
• NH 36 - Nagaon-Dabaka-Dimapur
• NH 37 - Goalpara-Dispur-Chabua-Saikhoa Ghat
• NH 39 - Numaligarh-Golaghat-Dimapur-Kohima-Mayanmar Border
• NH 40 - Jorabat-Umling-Shillong-Jowai
• NH 41 - Kolaghat - Tamluk- Durgachak-Haldia
• NH 42 - Sambalpur - Angul-Cuttack
• NH 43 - Raipur-Keskal-Sunabeda-Chittivalasa
• NH 44 - Shillong to Sabroom
• NH 45 - Chennai - Tiruchchirappalli- Dindigul
• NH 45A - Viluppuram - Pondicherry- Nagore -Nagapattinam
• NH 45B -Tiruchhirapalli to Tuticorin
• NH 46 - Ranipettati- Arcot-Vellore -Krishnagiri
• NH 47 - Salem-Kollam- Thiruvananthapuram-Kannyakumari
• NH 48 - Mangalore - Hassan-Solur- Nelamangala
• NH49 - Kochi to Rameswaram
• NH 50 - Pune - Khed- Nadur- Sinner
• NH 53 - Imphal-Silchar-Bhanga
• NH 55 - Siliguri - Matigara- Darjeeling
• NH 56 - Lucknow-Jaunpur-Phulpur - Varanasi
• NH 57 - Muzzaffarpur - Madhepur-Purnia
• NH 58 - Mana -Badrinath-Haridwar - Meerut- Modinagar- Delhi
• NH 59 - Ahmadabad-Rajgarh-Dhar-Indore
• NH 60 - Asansol - Medinipur- Basta0-Rupsa- Balasor
• NH 63 - Ankola-Hubli-Bellari- Gooty
• NH 64 - Chandigarh -Banar-Patiala- Barnala- Bhatinda-Dabwali
• NH 65 - Ambala -Fatehpur -Jodhpur -Pali
• NH 66 - Krishnagiri -Nattur-Kiliyanur-Pondicherry
• NH 67 - Coimbatore -Karur- Thanjavur-Nagappattinam
• NH 68 - Salem- Attur-Elavanasur-Ulundurpettal
• NH 69 - Obaidukkagan-Multai-Chicholi-Nagpur
• NH 71 - Jalandhar -Jind- Rohtak- Rewari-Bawal
• NH 72 - Ambala -Paonta Sahib-Dehradoon-Haridwar
• NH 73 - Ambala -Saharanpur- Roorkee
• NH 74 - Bareilly -Sitarganj-Nagina-Haridwar
• NH 75 - Gwalior-Jhansi-Panna-Satna-Rewa
• NH 76 - Pindwara-Jhansi-Attara - Allahabad
• NH 77 - Sonbarsa -Dumra-Muzzafarpur-Hazipur
• NH 78 - Katni-Pali-Nagpur-Karabel-Gumla
• NH 79 - Ajmer-Bhilwara-Ratlam -Ghat Bilod
• NH 83 - Patna - Gaya- Bara -Dobhi
• NH 87 - Nanital-Ranibagh-Haldwani- Rampur
• NH 200 - Raipur-Bilaspur-Naikul-Sukinda
• NH 201 - Bargarh - Kesinga- Ampani-Boriguma
• NH 202 - Hyderabad - Ghanpur- Nagaram - Bholpalpatnam
• NH 204 - Ratnagiri - Malkapur - Kolhapur
• NH 205 - Anantapur -Tiruparti- Nagari - Chennai
• NH 206 - Honavar -Sagar- Kadur- Banavar-Tumkur
• NH 208 - Kollam -Sivagiri- Kallupatti -Madurai
• NH 209 - Bangalore - Pollachi- Palani - Dindigul
• NH 210 - Tiruchchirapalli - Kiranur- Devipattinam
• NH 211 - Solapur- Vedshi-Adul-Dhule

Nicknames Of Important Cities In India

NICK NAMES OF SOME IMPORTANT INDIAN CITIES.
Pink City - Jaipur (Rajastan)*
Garden City - Bangalore (Karnataka)* Diamond City - Surat (Gujarat)*
Egg city - Namakkal (Tamilnadu)*
Lake City - Udaipur (Rajastan)*
Sun City - Jodhpur (Rajastan)*
City of Palaces - Kolkata (West Bengal)* Bangle City - Hyderabad (Andra Pradesh)* Golden City - Jaisalmer(Rajastan)*
City of Dawn - Auroville (Pondichery)* White City - Udaipur (Rajastan)*
City of Golden Temple - Amritsar (Punjab)* Twin Cities - Hyderabad and Secundarabad(Andhra pradesh)*
Pearl City - Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu)* Weavers city - Panipat (Haryana)*
Temple City - Bhuvaneswar (Orissa)* Sandal Wood City - Mysore (Karnataka)* City of Blood - Tezpur (Assam)*
Orange City - Nagpur (Maharashtra)*
City of seven Islands - Mumbai (Maharashtra)l

Guess Questions For Jkssb Laboratary Assistant, General Teacher & Science Teacher

1 .Bleaching powder is prepared by passing —A.  Chlorine over slaked limeB.    Oxygen over slaked limeC.  Carbon dioxide over slaked limeD.    Chlorine over quick lime

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option DExplanation :

 View Answer

2 .Divi sion of Powers and Independent Judiciary are the two important features ofA.  Socialist form GovernmentB.    Unitary form of GovernmentC.  Democratic form of GovernmentD.    Federal form of Government

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option CExplanation :

 View Answer

3 .Which Article of the Indian Constitution did Dr. B.R. Ambedkar term as the "Heart and Soul of the Indian Constitution" ?A.  Article 14B.    Article 19C.  Article 15D.    Article 32

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option DExplanation :

 View Answer

4 .Who was the first to use the term 'State' ?A.  HobbesB.    PlatoC.  AristotleD.    Machiavelli

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option DExplanation :

 View Answer

5 .Forced Savings refer to—A.  Reduction of consumption consequent to a rise in pricesB.    Taxes on individual income and wealthC.  Compulsory depos it s i mposed on income tax payersD.    Provident fund contribution of private sector employees

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option AExplanation :

 View Answer

6 .The demand for labour is calledA.  Market DemandB.    Direct demandC.  Derived demandD.    Factory demand

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option CExplanation :

 View Answer

7 .Which of the following is not an investment expenditure in goods and services ?A.  Expansion of the main plant of a companyB.    Purchase of a houseC.  Purchase of machineryD.    An increase in business inventories

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option BExplanation :

 View Answer

8 .Which river in India flows in a rift-valley ?A.  CauveryB.    TaptiC.  NarmadaD.    Krishna

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option CExplanation :

 View Answer

9 .A narrow strip of land that connects two larger land masses is calledA.  StraitB.    PeninsulaC.  CapeD.    Isthmus

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option DExplanation :

 View Answer

10 .The dif ference between GNP and NNP equalsA.  transfer paymentsB.    depreciationC.  corporate profitsD.    personal taxes

Answer & Explanation

Answer : Option BExplanation :

 View Answer

UNION LIST , STATE LIST, CONCURRENT LIST

UNION LIST , STATE LIST, CONCURRENT LIST
(1). Union List
(2 ) State List
(3). Concurrent List
Union List
The Union List or List-I is a list of 100 items (the last item is numbered 97) given in Seventh Schedule in the Constitution of India on which Parliament has exclusive power to legislate. The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union List, State List andConcurrent List. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Union Government, as with the Canadian federal government.
There are 100 items on the list, of which one is no longer in force. These are:
1. Defence of India and every part thereof including preparation for defence and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation.
2. Naval, militaryand air forces; any other armed forces of the Union.
2A. Deployment of any armed forces of the Union or any other force subject to the control of the Union or any contingent or unit thereof in any State in aid of the civil power; powers, jurisdiction, privileges and liabilities of the members of such forces while on such deployment.
3. Delimitation of [cantonment] areas, local self-governmentin such areas, the constitution and powers within such areas of cantonment authorities and the regulation of house accommodation (including the control of rents) in such areas.
4. Naval, militaryand air force works.
5. Arms, firearms, ammunitionand explosives.
6. Atomic energyand mineral resources necessary for its production.
7. Industriesdeclared by Parliament by law to be necessary for the purpose of defence or for the prosecution of war.
8. Central Bureau of Intelligence and Investigation.
9. Preventive detentionfor reasons connected with Defence, Foreign Affairs, or the security of India; persons subjected to such detention.
10. Foreign affairs; all matters which bring the Union into relation with any foreign country.
11. Diplomatic, consularand trade representation.
12. United Nations Organisation.
13. Participation in international conferences, associations and other bodies and implementing of decisions made thereat.
14. Entering into treatie s and agreements with foreign countries and implementing of treaties, agreements and conventions with foreign Countries.
15. Warand peace.
16. Foreign jurisdiction.
17. Citizenship, naturalisationand aliens.
18. Extradition.
19. Admission into, and emigrationand expulsionfrom, India; passports and visas.
20. Pilgrimagesto places outside India.
21. Piraciesand crimes committed on the high seas or in the air; offences against the law of nations committed on land or the high seas or in the air.
22. Railways.
23. Highwaysdeclared by or under law made by Parliament to be national highways.
24. Shippingand navigation on inland waterways, declared by Parliament by law to be national waterways, as regards mechanically propelled vessels; the rule of the road on such waterways
25. Maritime shipping and navigation, including shipping and navigation on tidal waters; provision of education and training for the mercantile marineand regulation of such education and training provided by States and other agencies.
26. Lighthouses, including lightships, beacons and other provision for the safety of shipping and aircraft.
27. Portsdeclared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports, including their delimitation, and the constitution and powers of port authorities therein.
28. Port quarantine, including hospitals connected therewith; seamen’s and marine hospitals.
29. Airways aircraft and air navigation; provision of aerodromes; regulation and organisation of air traffic, and of aerodromes; provision for aeronautical education and training and regulation of such education and training provided by States and other agencies.
30. Carriage of passengers and goods by railway, sea or air, or by national waterways in mechanically propelled vessels.
31. Posts and telegraphs, telephones, wireless, broadcasting and other like forms of communication.
32. Property of the Union and the revenue therefrom, but as regards property situated in a State subject to legislation by the State, save in so far as Parliament by law otherwise provides.
33.
34. Courts of wardsfor the estates of Rulers of Indian States.
35. Public debtof the Union.
36. Currency, coinageand legal tender; foreign exchange.
37. Foreign loans.
38. Reserve Bank of India.
39. Post Office Savings Bank.
40. Lotteries organised by the Government of Indiaor the Government of a State.
41. Tradeand commerce with foreign countries import and export across customs frontiers definition of customs frontiers.
42. Inter-State trade and commerce.
43. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of trading Corporations, including banking, insurance and financial corporations but not including Co-operative Societies.
44. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, whether trading or not, with objects not confined to one State, but not including universities.
45. Banking.
46. Bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notesand other like instruments.
47. Insurance.
48. Stock exchangesand futures markets.
49. Patents, inventions and designs; copyright; trade-marksand merchandise marks.
50. Establishment of standards of weight and measure.
51. Establishment of standards of quality for goods to be exported out of India or transported from one State to another.
52. Industries, the control of which by the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest.
53. Regulation and development of oilfields and mineral oil resources; petroleum and petroleum products; other liquids and substances declared by Parliament by law to be dangerously inflammable.
54. Regulation of mines and mineral development to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest.
55. Regulation of labour and safety in mines and oil-fields.
56. Regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest.
57. Fishing and fisheries beyond territorial waters.
58. Manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by Union agencies; regulations and control of manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by other agencies.
59. Cultivation, manufacture, and sale for export, of opium.
60. Sanctioning of cinematograph filmsfor exhibition.
61. Industrial disputes concerning Union employees.
62. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution as the National Library, the Indian Museum, the Imperial War Museum, the Victoria Memorialand the Indian War Memorial, and any other like institution financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance.
63. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution as the Benares Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim Universityand the Delhi University; the University established in pursuance of Article 371-E; any other institution declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance.
64. Institutions for scientific or technical education financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be institutions of national importance.
65. Union agencies and institutions for –
(a) professional, vocational or technical training, including the training of police officers; or
(b) the promotion of special studies or research; or
(c) scientific or technical assistance in the investigation or detection of crime.
66. Co-ordination and determination of standards in institutions for higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.
67. Ancient and historical monuments and records, and archaeological sites and remains, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.
68. The Survey of India, the Geological, Botanical, ZoologicalandAnthropologicalSurveys of India; Meteorological organisations.
69. Census.
70. Union public services; all-India services; Union Public Service Commission.
71. Union Pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the Government of India or out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
72. Electionsto Parliament, to the Legislatures of States and to the offices of President and Vice-President; the Election Commission.
73. Salaries and allowances of members of Parliament, the Chairmanand Deputy chairmanof the Council of States and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People.
74. Powers, privileges and Immunities of each House of Parliamentand of the members and the Committees of each House enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents before committees of Parliament or commissions appointed by Parliament.
75. Emoluments, allowances, privileges, and rights in respect of leave of absence, of the President and Governorssalaries and allowances of the Ministers for the Union; the Salaries, allowances, and rights in respect of leave of absence and other conditions of service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
76. Audit of the accounts of the Union and of the States.
77. Constitution, organisation, jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court(including contempt of such Court), and the fees taken therein persons entitled to practice before the Supreme Court.
78. Constitution and organisation (including vacations) of the High Courtsexcept provisions as to officers and servants of High Courts; persons entitled to practice before the High Courts.
79. Extensions of the jurisdiction of a High Court to, and exclusion of the jurisdiction of a High Court from any Union territory.
80. Extension of the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police force belonging to any Stateto any area outside that State, but not so as to enable the police of one State to exercise powers and jurisdiction in any area outside that State without the consent of the Government of the State in which such area is situated; extension of the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police force belonging to any State to railway areas outside that State.
81. Inter-state migration; inter-State quarantine.
82. Taxes on income other than agricultural income.
83. Duties of customsincluding export duties.
84. Duties of excise on tobaccoand other goods manufactured or produced in India except –
(a) alcoholic liquors for human consumption
(b) opium, Indian hemp and other narcotic drugs and narcotics;
but including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
85. Corporation tax.
86. Taxes on the capital value of the assets, exclusive of agricultural land, of individuals and companies; taxes on the capital of companies.
87. Estate dutyin respect of property other than agricultural land.
88. Dutiesin respect of succession to property other than agricultural land.
89. Terminal taxes on goods or passengers, carried by railway, sea or air; taxes on railway fares and freights.
90. Taxes other than stamp dutieson transactions in stock exchanges and futures markets.
91. Rates of stamp duty in respect of bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes, bills of lading, letters of credit, policies of insurance, transfer of shares, debentures, proxies and receipts.
92. Taxes on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on advertisements published therein.
92A. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers, where such sale or purchase takes place in the course of inter-State trade or commerce.
92B. Taxes on the consignment of goods (whether the consignment is to the person making it or to any other person), where such consignment takes place in the course of inter-State trade or commerce.
92C. Taxes on services.
93. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this List.
94. Inquiries, surveys and statistics for the purpose of any of the matters in this List.
95. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this List admiralty jurisdiction.
96. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court.
97. Any other matter not enumerated in List IIor List IIIincluding any tax not mentioned in either of those Lists.
(2)State List
The State List or List-II is a list of 61 items (Initially there were 66 items in the list) in Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union List, State List and Concurrent List. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Union Government, as with the Canadian federal government.
If any provision of a law made by the Legislature of a State is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which Parliament is competent to enact, or to any provision of an existing law with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List, then, the law made by Parliament, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislature of such State, or, as the case may be, the existing law, shall prevail and the law made by the Legislature of the State shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void. There is an exception to this in cases “where a law made by the Legislature of a State with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List contains any provision repugnant to the provisions of an earlier law made by Parliament or an existing law with respect to that matter, then, the law so made by the Legislature of such State shall, if it has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, prevail in that State. Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislature of the State.”
Items on the list
The 61 items currently on the list are:
1. Public order(but not including the use of any naval, military or air force or any other armed force of the Union or of any other force subject to the control of the Union or of any contingent or unit thereof in aid of the civil power).
2. Police (including railway and village police) subject to the provisions of Entry 2-A ofList-I.
3. Officers and servants of theHigh Court; procedure in rent and revenue courts; fees taken in all courts except the Supreme Court.
4. Prisons,reformatories, Borstal institutions and other institutions of a like nature and persons detained therein; arrangements with other States for the use of prisons and other institutions.
5. Local government, that is to say, the constitution and powers ofmunicipal corporations, improvement trusts, district boards, mining settlement authorities and other local authorities for the purpose of local self– government or village administration.
6. Public healthand sanitation; hospitals anddispensaries.
7. Pilgrimages, other than pilgrimages to places outside India.
8. Intoxicating liquors, that is to say, the production, manufacture, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.
9. Relief for thedisabled and unemployable.
10. Burialsandburial grounds; cremations and cremation grounds.
11.
12. Libraries,museumsand other similar institutions controlled or financed by the State; ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.
13. Communications, that is to say, roads, bridges,ferries, and other means of communication not specified inList I; municipal tramways, ropeways, inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to the provisions of List I and List III with regard to such water-ways; vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles.
14. Agriculture, including agricultural education and research; protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases.
15. Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases; veterinary training and practice.
16. Pondsand the prevention of cattle trespass.
17. Water, that is to say,water supplies,irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power subject to the provisions of Entry 56 of List I.
18. Land, that is to say, rights in or over land,land tenuresincluding the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land;land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization.
19.
20.
21. Fisheries.
22. Courts of wards; subject to the provisions of Entry 34 of List I; encumbered and attached estates.
23. Regulation of mines and mineral development subject to the provisions of List I with respect to regulation and development under the control of the Union.
24. Industriessubject to the provisions of Entries 7 and 52 of List I.
25. Gasandgas-works.
26. Tradeandcommerce within the State subject to the provisions of Entry 33 of List III.
27. Production, supply and distribution ofgoodssubject to the provisions of Entry 33 of List III.
28. Marketsandfairs.
29.
30. Money-lending andmoney-lenders; relief of agricultural indebtedness.
31. Innsand inn-keepers.
32. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, other than those specified in List I, anduniversities; unincorporated trading, literary, scientific, religious and other societies and associations;co-operative societies.
33. Theatresanddramatic performances; cinemas subject to the provisions of Entry 60 of List I; sports, entertainments and amusements.
34. Bettingandgambling.
35. Works, lands and buildings vested in or in the possession of the State.
36.
37. Elections to the Legislature of the Statesubject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament.
38. Salaries and allowances ofmembers of the legislatureof the State, of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and, if there is a Legislative Council, of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman thereof.
39. Powers, privileges and immunities of the Legislative Assembly and of the members and the committees thereof and, if there is a Legislative Council, of that Council and of the members and the committees thereof; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents before committees of the Legislature of the State.
40. Salaries and allowances of Ministers for the State.
41. Statepublic services; State Public Service Commission.
42. State pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the State or out of the Consolidated Fund of the State.
43. Public debtof the State.
44. Treasure trove.
45. Land revenue, including the assessment and collection of revenue, the maintenance ofland records, survey for revenue purposes and records of rights, and alienation of revenues.
46. Taxes onagricultural income.
47. Dutiesin respect of succession to agricultural land.
48. Estate dutyin respect of agricultural land.
49. Taxes on lands and buildings.
50. Taxes on mineral rights subject to any limitations imposed by Parliament by law relating to mineral development.
51. Duties of excise on the following goods manufactured or produced in the State and countervailing duties at the same or lower rates on similar goods manufactured or produced elsewhere in India-
(a) alcoholic liquors for human consumption
(b) opium, Indian hemp and other narcotic drugs and narcotics
but not including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry.
52. Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use or sale therein.
53. Taxes on the consumption or sale ofelectricity.
54. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other thannewspapers, subject to the provisions of Entry 92-A of List I.
55. Taxes on advertisements other than advertisements published in the newspapers and advertisements broadcast by radio or television.
56. Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or oninland waterways.
57. Taxes on vehicles, whether mechanically propelled or not, suitable for use on roads, includingtram-carssubject to the provisions of Entry 35 of List III [Concurrent list].
58. Taxes on animals and boats.
59.52. olls.
53. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
54. Capitation taxes.
55. Taxes on luxuries, including taxes on entertainments, amusements, betting and gambling.
56. Rates ofstamp dutyin respect of documents other than those specified in the provisions of List I with regard to rates of stamp duty.
57. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this list.
58. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except theSupreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this list.
59. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this list, but not including fees taken in any court.
(2) Concurrent List
The Concurrent List or List-III (Seventh Schedule) is a list of 52 items (though the last item is numbered 47) given in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India. The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union List, State List and Concurrent List. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Union Government, as with the Canadian federal government.
Uniformity is desirable but not essential on items in the concurrent list. If any provision of a law made by the Legislature of a State
Tis repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which Parliament is competent to enact, or to any provision of an existing law with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List, then, the law made by Parliament, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislature of such State, or, as the case may be, the existing law, shall prevail and the law made by the Legislature of the State shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void. There is an exception to this in cases “where a law made by the Legislature of a State with respect to one of the matters enumerated in the Concurrent List contains any provision repugnant to the provisions of an earlier law made by Parliament or an existing law with respect to that matter, then, the law so made by the Legislature of such State shall, if it has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, prevail in that State. Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislature of the State.
Items on the list.
The 52 items currently on the list are.
1. Criminal law, including all matters included in theIndian Penal Code at the commencement of this Constitution but excluding offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified in List I or List II and excluding the use of naval, military or air forces or any other armed forces of the Union in aid of the civil power.
2. Criminal procedure, including all matters included in theCode of Criminal Procedure at the commencement of this Constitution.
3. Preventive detentionfor reasons connected with the security of a State, the maintenance of public order, or the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community; persons subjected to such detention.
4. Removal from oneStateto another State of prisoners, accused persons and persons subjected to preventive detention for reasons specified in Entry 3 of this list.
5. Marriageand divorce; infants and minors;adoption; wills, intestacy and succession; joint family and partition; all matters in respect of which parties in judicial proceedings were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution subject to their personal law.
6. Transfer of property other thanagricultural land; registration ofdeeds and documents.
7. Contractsincluding partnership, agency,contracts of carriage, and other special forms of contracts, but not including contracts relating to agricultural land.
8. Actionable wrongs.
9. Bankruptcyand insolvency.
10. Trustand Trustees.
11. Administrators – general and official trustees.
11-A. Administration of justice; constitution and Organisation of all courts, except the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
12. Evidenceand oaths; recognition of laws, public acts and records, and judicial proceedings.
13. Civil procedure, including all matters included in the Code of Civil Procedure at the commencement of this Constitution, limitation andarbitration.
14. Contempt of court, but not including contempt of the Supreme Court.
15. Vagrancy;nomadic and migratory tribes.
16. Lunacyand mental deficiency, including places for the reception or treatment of lunatics and mental deficients.
17. Prevention ofcruelty to animals.
17-A. Forests.
17-B. Protection of wild animals and birds.
18. Adulterationof foodstuffs and other goods.
19. Drugsand poisons, subject to the provisions of Entry 59 of List I with respect to opium.
20. Economicand social planning.
20-A. Population control and family planning.
21. Commercial and industrial monopolies,combinesand trusts.
22. Trade unions;industrial and labour disputes.
23. Social securityand social insurance; employment and unemployment.
24. Welfare of labour includingconditions of work,provident funds, employers’ liability, workmen’s compensation, invalidity and old age pensions and maternity benefits.
25. Education, includingtechnical education, medical education and universities, subject to the provisions of Entries 63, 64, 65 and 66 of List I; vocational and technical training of labour.
26. Legal,medical and other professions.
27. Reliefand rehabilitation of persons displaced from their original place of residence by reason of the setting up of the Dominions of India and Pakistan.
28. Charitiesand charitable institutions, charitable and religious endowments and religious institutions.
29. Prevention of the extension from one State to another of infectious or contagious diseases or pests affecting men, animals or plants.
30. Vital statisticsincluding registration of births and deaths.
31. Portsother than those declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports.
32. Shippingand navigation on inland waterways as regards mechanically propelled vessels, and the rule of the road on such waterways, and the carriage of passengers and goods on inland waterways subject to the provisions of List I with respect to national waterways.
33. Tradeand commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of,-
(a) the products of any industry where the control of such industry by the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest, and imported goods of the same kind as such products
(b) foodstuffs, including edible oilseeds and oils
(c) cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates
(d) raw cotton, whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seed; and
(e) raw jute.
33-A. Weights and measures except establishment of standards.
34. Price control.
35. Mechanically propelled vehiclesincluding the principles on which taxes on such vehicles are to be levied.
36. Factories.
37. Boilers.
38. Electricity.
39. Newspapers, books andprinting presses.
40. Archaeological sitesand remains other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.
41. Custody, management and disposal of property (including agricultural land) declared by law to be evacuee property.
42. Acquisition and requisitioning of property.
43. Recovery in a State of claims in respect of taxes and other public demands, including arrears of land-revenue and sums recoverable as such arrears, arising outside that State.
44. Stamp dutiesother than duties or fees collected by means of judicial stamps, but not including rates of stamp duty.
45. Inquiries and statistics for the purposes of any of the matters specified in List II or List III.
46. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except theSupreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this List.
47. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court.